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List of World Chess Championships

The following is a list of World Chess Championships including the hosting cities. Qualification path consist of Interzonals (defunct), FIDE Grand Prix, Chess World Cup and Candidates Tournament for the process of selecting a challenger for championship matches.

List of World Chess Championships

Year Host Country Host City World Champion Runner-up(s) Won (+) Lost (−) Draw (=) Format
Unofficial World Chess Championships (1834-1886)
1834 United Kingdom London Louis de La Bourdonnais Alexander McDonnell 45 28 13
1843 United Kingdom London Pierre Saint-Amant Howard Staunton 3 2 1
1843 France Paris Howard Staunton Pierre Saint-Amant 11 6 4
1846 United Kingdom London Howard Staunton Bernhard Horwitz 14 7 3
1858 France Paris Paul Morphy Adolf Anderssen 7 2 2
1866 United Kingdom London Wilhelm Steinitz Adolf Anderssen 8 6 0
Official World Chess Championships (1886-1946)
1886 United States New York City
Saint Louis
New Orleans
Wilhelm Steinitz Johannes Zukertort 10 5 5 first-to-10 wins
1889 Cuba Havana Wilhelm Steinitz Mikhail Chigorin 10 6 1 best-of-20 + tiebreak
1891 United States New York City Wilhelm Steinitz Isidor Gunsberg 6 4 9
1892 Cuba Havana Wilhelm Steinitz Mikhail Chigorin 8+2 8 4+1
1894 United States and
Canada
New York City
Philadelphia
Montreal
Emanuel Lasker Wilhelm Steinitz 10 5 4 first-to-10 wins
1897 Russian Empire Moscow Emanuel Lasker Wilhelm Steinitz 10 2 5
1907 United States New York City
Philadelphia
Washington, D.C.
Baltimore
Chicago
Memphis
Emanuel Lasker Frank Marshall 8 0 7 first-to-8 wins
1908 German Empire Düsseldorf
Munich
Emanuel Lasker Siegbert Tarrasch 8 3 5
1910 Austria-Hungary and
German Empire
Vienna
Berlin
Emanuel Lasker Carl Schlechter 1 1 8 best of 10; disputed whether challenger had to win by 1 or 2 points;
1910 German Empire Berlin Emanuel Lasker Dawid Janowski 8 0 3 first-to-8 wins
1921 Cuba Havana José Raúl Capablanca Emanuel Lasker 4 0 10 best-of-24; Emanuel Lasker resigned after 14 games
1927 Argentina Buenos Aires Alexander Alekhine José Raúl Capablanca 6 3 25 first-to-6 wins
1929 Germany and
Netherlands
Wiesbaden
Heidelberg
Berlin
The Hague
Alexander Alekhine Efim Bogoljubov 11 5 9 first-to-6 wins AND 15 points
1934 Nazi Germany Baden-Baden
Villingen-Schwenningen
Freiburg im Breisgau
Pforzheim
Stuttgart
Munich
Bayreuth
Bad Kissingen
Mannheim
Berlin
Alexander Alekhine Efim Bogoljubov 8 3 15
1935 Netherlands Amsterdam
Delft
Rotterdam
Utrecht
Gouda
The Hague
Groningen
Baarn
's-Hertogenbosch
Eindhoven
Zeist
Ermelo
Zandvoort
Max Euwe Alexander Alekhine 9 8 13
1937 Netherlands The Hague
Rotterdam
Amsterdam
Haarlem
Leiden
Groningen
Delft
Alexander Alekhine Max Euwe 10 4 11
Interregnum (1946-1948)
Alexander Alekhine died in 1946 as World Chess Champion.
FIDE World Chess Championships (1948-1993)
1948 Netherlands and
Soviet Union
The Hague
Moscow
Mikhail Botvinnik 4 players 14 points out of 20 5-player, 5-cycle round-robin tournament
1951 Soviet Union Moscow Mikhail Botvinnik David Bronstein 5 5 14 best-of-24
1954 Soviet Union Moscow Mikhail Botvinnik Vasily Smyslov 7 7 10
1957 Soviet Union Moscow Vasily Smyslov Mikhail Botvinnik 6 3 13
1958 Soviet Union Moscow Mikhail Botvinnik Vasily Smyslov 7 5 11
1960 Soviet Union Moscow Mikhail Tal Mikhail Botvinnik 6 2 13
1961 Soviet Union Moscow Mikhail Botvinnik Mikhail Tal 10 5 6
1963 Soviet Union Moscow Tigran Petrosian Mikhail Botvinnik 5 2 15
1966 Soviet Union Moscow Tigran Petrosian Boris Spassky 4 3 17
1969 Soviet Union Moscow Boris Spassky Tigran Petrosian 6 4 13
1972 Iceland Reykjavík Bobby Fischer Boris Spassky 7 3 11
1975 Philippines Manila Anatoly Karpov Bobby Fischer by default first-to-10 wins
1978 Philippines Baguio Anatoly Karpov Viktor Korchnoi 6 5 21 first-to-6 wins
1981 Italy Kurhaus
Merano
Anatoly Karpov Viktor Korchnoi 6 2 10
1984 Soviet Union Moscow Anatoly Karpov Garry Kasparov 5 3 40 first-to-6 wins; aborted match
1985 Soviet Union Moscow Garry Kasparov Anatoly Karpov 5 3 16 best-of-24
1986 United Kingdom and
Soviet Union
London
Leningrad
Garry Kasparov Anatoly Karpov 5 4 15
1987 Spain Seville Garry Kasparov Anatoly Karpov 4 4 16
1990 United States and
France
New York City
Lyon
Garry Kasparov Anatoly Karpov 4 3 17
Classical World Chess Championships (1993-2006)
World Chess Champion Garry Kasparov and challenger Nigel Short split from FIDE, the official world governing body of chess, and played their title match under the auspices of the Professional Chess Association.
1993 United Kingdom London Garry Kasparov Nigel Short 6 1 13 best-of-24
1995 United States New York City Garry Kasparov Viswanathan Anand 4 1 13 best-of-20
2000 United Kingdom London Vladimir Kramnik Garry Kasparov 2 0 13 best-of-16
2004 Switzerland Brissago Vladimir Kramnik Peter Leko 2 2 10 best-of-14
FIDE World Chess Championships (1993-2006)
Garry Kasparov was stripped of his FIDE-title after he and challenger Nigel Short split from FIDE in 1993. Anatoly Karpov, the 1990 participant in the last FIDE World Chess Championship match, was announced as incumbent World Champion.

In 1996 FIDE changed its rule and the incumbent World Champion was not anymore automatically qualified for the Final match.

1993 Netherlands and
Indonesia
Zwolle
Arnhem
Amsterdam
Jakarta
Anatoly Karpov Jan Timman 6 2 13 best-of-24
1996 Russia Elista Anatoly Karpov Gata Kamsky 6 3 9 best-of-20
1998 Netherlands and
Switzerland
Groningen
Lausanne
Anatoly Karpov Viswanathan Anand 2+2 2 2 single-elimination tournament with finals best-of-6 + tiebreaks
1999 United States Las Vegas Alexander Khalifman Vladimir Akopian 2 1 3
2000 India and
Iran
New Delhi
Teheran
Viswanathan Anand Alexei Shirov 3 0 1
2002 Russia Moscow Ruslan Ponomariov Vassily Ivanchuk 2 0 5
2004 Libya Tripoli Rustam Kasimdzhanov Michael Adams 3 2 3
2005 Argentina Potrero de los Funes
San Luis
Veselin Topalov 7 players 10 points out of 14 8-player double round-robin tournament
World Chess Championships (2006-present)
2006 Russia Elista Vladimir Kramnik Veselin Topalov 3+2 3+1 6+1 best-of-12 + tiebreaks
2007 Mexico Mexico City Viswanathan Anand 7 players 9 points out of 14 8-player double round-robin tournament
2008 Germany Bonn Viswanathan Anand Vladimir Kramnik 3 1 7 best-of-12 + tiebreaks
2010 Bulgaria Sofia Viswanathan Anand Veselin Topalov 3 2 7
2012 Russia Moscow Viswanathan Anand Boris Gelfand 1+1 1 10+3
2013 India Chennai Magnus Carlsen Viswanathan Anand 3 0 7
2014 Russia Sochi Magnus Carlsen Viswanathan Anand 3 1 7
2016 United States candidates:
Los Angeles
New York City
San Francisco

Note: Name in bold print indicates lineal champion.

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