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Classical World Chess Championship 1995

The Classical World Chess Championship 1995, known at the time as the PCA World Chess Championship 1995, was held from September 10, 1995, to October 16, 1995, on the 107th floor of the World Trade Center in New York City. Garry Kasparov, the defending champion, played Viswanathan Anand, the challenger, in a twenty-game match. Kasparov won the match after eighteen games with four wins, one loss, and thirteen draws.

Background

In 1993, the reigning FIDE World Chess Champion, Garry Kasparov decided to split from FIDE because he felt the organisation was corrupt, and formed a rival organisation, the PCA (Professional Chess Association). In response, FIDE stripped Kasparov of his status and organised an event to determine a new champion - this event was won by Anatoly Karpov.

Kasparov claimed that, as he had not been defeated by a challenger to his title in a match, and in fact had defeated the rightful challenger (Nigel Short in 1993), that he was still the reigning world champion.

Thus, for the first time since the inaugural World Championship in 1886, there were two rival World Chess Championships.

The PCA ran a world championship cycle similar in format to that in use by FIDE at the time. It was to be the only full championship cycle run under the auspices of the PCA.

1993 Qualifying tournament

The PCA held a qualifying tournament and Candidates matches in 1993-1995. A number of leading players did not participate, most notably FIDE World Champion Anatoly Karpov. The events were held at a similar time as the FIDE World Chess Championship 1996, with many of the same players playing in both.

The Qualifying tournament in Groningen in December 1993 had 54 players participating in an 11-round Swiss system tournament, with the top seven qualifying for the Candidates Tournament.

1993 PCA Qualifying Tournament
Rating 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Total
1 Michael Adams (England) 2635 =33 +39 +45 =23 -5 +7 =4 +11 =2 +6 =3
2 Viswanathan Anand (India) 2725 +52 =5 =7 +30 +22 +20 =8 =6 =1 =3 =4
3 Gata Kamsky (United States) 2645 =13 =30 =33 +19 +17 =4 =5 =16 +23 =2 =1 7
4 Vladimir Kramnik (Russia) 2710 +40 =20 -22 +35 +25 =3 =1 =8 +24 =9 =2 7
5 Sergei Tiviakov (Russia) 2635 +41 =2 =34 +29 +1 =22 =3 =20 -6 +25 =8 7
6 Boris Gulko (United States) 2635 =29 =37 +49 =20 +10 =8 +22 =2 +5 -1 =11 7
7 Oleg Romanishin (Ukraine) 2615 +53 =24 =2 =25 =9 -1 +28 =10 =26 +22 +20 7
8 Alexei Shirov (Latvia) 2685 +11 +36 =23 -22 +32 =6 =2 =4 =12 =16 =5
9 Sergey Dolmatov (Russia) 2630 =18 =33 =13 +12 =7 =23 =27 =21 +42 =4 =16
10 Eric Lobron (Germany) 2575 =19 =38 =11 +36 -6 +17 =44 =7 =15 =14 +25
11 Ivan Sokolov (Bosnia and Herzegovina) 2610 -8 =28 =10 +41 +37 =24 =31 -1 +44 +26 =6
12 Jeroen Piket (Netherlands) 2590 +25 -22 =35 -9 +47 +15 =24 +34 =8 =20 =18
13 Robert Hübner (Germany) 2605 =3 =34 =9 =38 =15 =25 =32 +29 =14 =24 +22
14 Julio Granda (Peru) 2605 =21 -45 =39 +18 =30 =44 +36 =27 =13 =10 +23
15 Rafael Vaganian (Armenia) 2615 =54 =26 =21 =44 =13 -12 +17 +30 =10 =23 +42
16 Predrag Nikolić (Bosnia and Herzegovina) 2625 +48 -23 +51 =24 +34 =31 =20 =3 =22 =8 =9
17 Judit Polgár (Hungary) 2630 =37 =29 +41 =32 -3 -10 -15 +51 +46 +31 +27
18 Lembit Oll (Estonia) 2595 =9 =35 -25 -14 =53 =45 +52 +36 +38 +21 =12
19 Jaan Ehlvest (Estonia) 2620 =10 =51 =37 -3 +48 -29 +35 -26 +41 +32 +24
20 Joel Benjamin (United States) 2620 +50 =4 +31 =6 +23 -2 =16 =5 =21 =12 -7 6
21 Veselin Topalov (Bulgaria) 2670 =14 =49 =15 =40 =29 =27 +46 =9 =20 -18 +33 6
22 Alexander Beliavsky (Ukraine) 2635 +42 +12 +4 +8 -2 =5 -6 =23 =16 -7 -13
23 Evgeny Bareev (Russia) 2660 +46 +16 =8 =1 -20 =9 +29 =22 -3 =15 -14
24 Gregory Kaidanov (United States) 2640 +43 =7 =30 =16 =27 =11 =12 +31 -4 =13 -19
25 Julian Hodgson (England) 2625 -12 +54 +18 =7 -4 =13 =30 +39 +27 -5 -10
26 Boris Alterman (Israel) 2585 =35 =15 -32 +47 =40 -28 +37 +19 =7 -11 =31
27 Alexey Vyzmanavin (Russia) 2605 =31 =44 =36 +45 =24 =21 =9 =14 -25 +34 -17
28 Ljubomir Ljubojević (Serbia and Montenegro) 2595 -36 =11 =46 +43 -31 +26 -7 -38 =49 +48 +44
29 Leonid Yudasin (Israel) 2605 =6 =17 +38 -5 =21 +19 -23 -13 =39 =36 =43 5
30 Gregory Serper (Uzbekistan) 2575 +32 =3 =24 -2 =14 =40 =25 -15 -35 +45 =34 5
31 Ilya Smirin (Israel) 2640 =27 +47 -20 =37 +28 =16 =11 -24 =32 -17 =26 5
32 Alexander Chernin (Hungary) 2615 -30 +42 +26 =17 -8 =39 =13 =44 =31 -19 =38 5
33 Vladimir Tukmakov (Ukraine) 2600 =1 =9 =3 -34 =38 =35 =49 =41 =40 +46 -21 5
34 Vladimir Malaniuk (Ukraine) 2635 =39 =13 =5 +33 -16 =46 =42 -12 +48 -27 =30 5
35 Viktor Korchnoi (Switzerland) 2625 =26 =18 =12 -4 =54 =33 -19 =43 +30 =39 =37 5
36 Zurab Azmaiparashvili (Georgia) 2630 +28 -8 =27 -10 +51 =42 -14 -18 +50 =29 =40 5
37 Curt Hansen (Denmark) 2590 =17 =6 =19 =31 -11 =38 -26 =49 =47 +52 =35 5
38 Miguel Illescas (Spain) 2625 =51 =10 -21 =13 =33 =37 =41 +28 -18 =40 =32 5
39 Vladimir Akopian (Armenia) 2600 =34 -1 =14 +52 =44 =32 =40 -25 =29 =35 =41 5
40 Zoltán Ribli (Hungary) 2610 -4 +50 =44 =21 =26 =30 =39 -42 =33 =38 =36 5
41 Eduardas Rozentalis (Lithuania) 2600 -5 +52 -17 -11 =43 +54 =38 =33 -19 +53 =39 5
42 Alex Yermolinsky (United States) 2605 -22 -32 +50 =48 +45 =36 =34 +40 -9 =44 -15 5
43 Lev Polugaevsky (Belarus) 2605 -24 =53 =48 -28 =41 =50 =51 =35 =45 +49 =29 5
44 Alexander Khalifman (Russia) 2645 =47 =27 =40 =15 =39 =14 =10 =32 -11 =42 -28
45 Kiril Georgiev (Bulgaria) 2660 =49 +14 -1 -27 -42 =18 =53 =48 =33 -30 +54
46 Mikhail Gurevich (Belgium) 2605 -23 =48 =28 =51 +49 =34 -21 +50 -17 -33 =47
47 Christopher Lutz (Germany) 2605 =44 -31 =54 -26 -12 +53 -48 +52 =37 =50 =46
48 Loek van Wely (Netherlands) 2585 -16 =46 =43 =42 -19 =49 +47 =45 -34 -28 =53 4
49 Jóhann Hjartarson (Iceland) 2605 =45 =21 -6 =54 -46 =48 =33 =37 =28 -43 =52 4
50 Patrick Wolff (United States) 2585 -20 -40 -42 +53 =52 =43 +54 -46 -36 =47 =51 4
51 Vadim Ruban (Russia) 2590 =38 =19 -16 =46 -36 =52 =43 -17 -53 =54 =50
52 Simen Agdestein (Norway) 2610 -2 -41 +53 -39 =50 =51 -18 -47 +54 -37 =49
53 Friso Nijboer (Netherlands) 2555 -7 =43 -52 -50 =18 -47 =45 =54 +51 -41 =48
54 Zsuzsa Polgár (Hungary) 2545 =15 -25 =47 =49 =35 -41 -50 =53 -52 =51 -45 3

1994-95 Candidates Tournament

The top seven from the Qualifying tournament were joined by Nigel Short, the loser of the 1993 PCA championship match against Kasparov.

The first round of Candidates matches were best of eight games, the semifinals were best of 10, and the final was best of 12. If the scores were tied, sets of two rapid chess games were played as tie breakers, until one player had a lead.

The quarterfinal matches were held at the Trump Tower in New York in June 1994 and opened by Donald Trump. The semifinals were played in Linares in September 1994, and the final in Las Palmas in March 1995.

  1st Round
Semifinals
Final
                           
 
    Gata Kamsky  
    Vladimir Kramnik    
      Gata Kamsky  
    Nigel Short  
    Nigel Short
    Boris Gulko    
      Gata Kamsky
        Viswanathan Anand
    Michael Adams  
    Sergei Tiviakov    
      Michael Adams
    Viswanathan Anand  
    Viswanathan Anand 5
    Oleg Romanishin 2  

1995 Championship match

The final was played at the World Trade Center, on the 107th floor of the South Tower.

PCA World Chess Championship Match 1995
Rating (change) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Total
Viswanathan Anand (India) 2725 (+13) ½ ½ ½ ½ ½ ½ ½ ½ 1 0 0 ½ 0 0 ½ ½ ½ ½
Garry Kasparov (Russia) 2795 (-32) ½ ½ ½ ½ ½ ½ ½ ½ 0 1 1 ½ 1 1 ½ ½ ½ ½ 10½

The match began with eight consecutive draws. In game 9 Anand, with white, broke through Kasparov's Sicilian Scheveningen defence to win. Kasparov hit back immediately in game 10, with a novelty in the Ruy Lopez Open Defence.

Game 11 was arguably the turning point in the match. Kasparov sprung a major surprise by playing the Sicilian Dragon with black - a once-popular defence which is now only played at the top level by a few specialists. Anand missed a comparatively simple combination and lost. After a draw in game 12, Anand again played weakly against the Dragon in game 13, losing again with white to go two points down.

When Anand lost game 14, Kasparov had a commanding 8½-5½ lead and the match was effectively over. The players drew their remaining games.

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