|Born||25 December 1937
Anda, Pangasinan, Commonwealth of the Philippines
|Title||International Master (1957)|
Rodolfo Tan Cardoso (25 December 1937 - 21 August 2013) was a Filipino chess International Master.
Cardoso was born in Anda, Pangasinan. In 1956, he won Philippine Junior Championship. In 1957, he took fifth place in the fourth World Junior Championship in Toronto, which was won by William Lombardy with a perfect score of 11-0. In 1957 the Pepsi-Cola company sponsored an eight-game match in New York between Cardoso, the 19-year-old Philippine Junior Champion, and Bobby Fischer, the 14-year-old U.S. Junior Champion. Fischer claimed the $325 victor's prize with a 6−2 score (+5 -1 =2).
In 1957/58, Cardoso won the Baguio City (zonal), thus qualifying him for the 1958 Portorož Interzonal, in which he finished 19th (Mikhail Tal won). In this tournament he scored an upset win over David Bronstein in the final round, thereby denying him a place in the 1959 Candidates Tournament. He was Philippine Champion in 1958 and 1963. He took second place at Christchurch 1967 (New Zealand championship; Yuri Averbakh won). In 1974, he tied for first through fourth place in Casablanca. In 1974, he took 14th in Manila (Evgeni Vasiukov won). In 1975, he tied for 13-14th in Orense. In 1975, he took 10th in Las Palmas (Ruy Lopez Memorial; Ljubomir Ljubojević won).
Cardoso played for Philippines in four Chess Olympiads.
He won the individual silver medal at Moscow 1956 with his winning percentage of .765.
Cardoso was awarded the International Master (IM) title in 1957, making him the first Asian IM and the only Filipino to ever beat Fischer.
He died of a heart attack in Quezon City at the Philippine Heart Center on 21 August 2013.