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Priyome

Priyome (Russian: приём), also spelled "priem", is a Russian noun that is used directly and generically in English to represent some sort of typical maneuver or technique in chess. For example, a typical defensive technique ("priem") in rook endings is to use the king to attack the opponent's pawns. The Russian word "Priem" is used more generally to refer to typical maneuvers used in positions with certain pawn structure or other defining characteristics. The term is pronounced "pree-YOHM" in both Russian and English.

"Priem" is a common word in the Russian language, and this meaning of the word is frequently used in many contexts, as diverse as music, literature, computer science, and martial arts. It is also very common in Russian chess literature. Because the word does not have an exact equivalent in English (with "device", "technique", or "method" the closest translations), the transliteration has appeared in English-language chess literature, although this usage is not yet widespread. (In Russian, "priem" has other unrelated meanings, including "reception" and "acceptance".)

Examples

A Russian movie, Buket Na Priyome, is a crime drama highlighting the technique as a theme and tactic. A famous game by Garry Kasparov in Nicaragua has been used by training academies to illustrate the technique. After e4-e5 in the first diagram below, the d-file is potentially open, and thus a candidate to be controlled by White's rooks:

a b c d e f g h
8
8
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
a b c d e f g h
Moving the Rook to the d file is a priyome, or recommended response. In annotations, moves with exclamation points suggest priyomes.

Example of Black vs. White priyomes
Black to move
a b c d e f g h
8
8
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
a b c d e f g h
In this famous 1972 Spassky-Fischer World Championship, Spassky played 1.a4, and Bobby answered with 1...a5!. This is a typical defensive technique (priyome) in similar positions, to fix the weakness of the a4 pawn.
White to move
a b c d e f g h
8
8
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
a b c d e f g h
In this Zsofia Polgar-Apol game from 1988, Polgar played the priyome with 1. Bg5! - again a typical maneuver in this pawn structure, to exchange the bishop for the f6 knight and gain control of the d5 square.
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